Coordinates : The Philadelphia Mint was created from the need to establish a national identity and the needs of commerce in the United States. This led the Founding Fathers of the United States to make an administration of a continental national mint, a main precedence after the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. The Coinage Act of 1792 was entered into police on April 2. It proclaimed the creation of the United States Mint. Philadelphia at that time was the state ‘s capital ; therefore the first base mint adeptness was built there. The Coinage Act of 1792 besides instituted a decimal fraction system based on a dollar unit ; specified weights, metallic composition and fineness ; and required each United States coin feature “ an impression emblematic of liberty ”.
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history [edit ]
inaugural building ( 1792–1833 ) [edit ]
photo of 1908, since demolished inaugural Philadelphia Mint, construct 1792, photograph of 1908, since demolished David Rittenhouse, an american scientist, was appointed the first director of the mint by President George Washington. Two lots were purchased by Rittenhouse on July 18, 1792, at Seventh Street and 631 Filbert Street in Philadelphia for $ 4,266.67. The next day, destruction of an abandoned whiskey distillery on the property began. Foundation work began on July 31, and by September 7, the first gear construction was ready for facility of the smelting furnace. The smell house was the first public build erected by the United States government. A three-story brick structure facing Seventh Street was constructed a few months late. Measuring about 37 foot ( 11 megabyte ) wide on the street, it merely extended back 33 foot ( 10 megabyte ). The gold and ash grey for the batch were contained in basement vaults. The foremost shock housed deposit and consider rooms, along with the press room, where striking coins took place. Mint official offices were on the second base floor, and the assay office was located on the third base floor. A photograph of the Seventh Street build up taken around 1908 picture that by then, the year 1792 and the words “ Ye Olde Mint ” ( in quotes ) had been painted onto the facade. Between the smack house and the build on Seventh Street, a mill theater was built. Horses in the basement turned a seethe mill located on the first gear floor. In January 1816, the smell and mill houses were destroyed by a fire. The smelt house was never repaired and all smelt was done elsewhere. The mill house, which was wholly destroyed, was soon replaced with a large brick building. It included a raw steam engine in the basement to might the machinery. Until 1833, these three buildings provided the United States with hard currency. Operations moved to the second Philadelphia mint in 1833, and the down caparison the beginning mint was sold. In the recently 19th or early twentieth hundred, the property was sold to Frank Stewart, who approached the city, asking them to preserve or relocate the historic buildings. [ 1 ] With no governmental help, the beginning batch was demolished between 1907 and 1911. now, only a small brass remains to memorialize the spot .
second gear build ( 1833–1901 ) [edit ]
pictured in 1902, since demolished second Philadelphia Mint, build 1833, pictured in 1902, since demolished On July 4, 1829, a basis was laid for the build at the intersection of Chestnut and Juniper Streets. It was designed by William Strickland. The second Philadelphia Mint, the “ grecian temple ”, was constructed of white marble with classic greek -style column on front and rear. Measuring 150 foot ( 46 m ) wide in front by 204 ft ( 62 thousand ) deep, it was a huge improvement over the first facility, in space a well as image. Opening in January 1833, its production was constrained by the outdated machinery salvaged from the first mint. Franklin Peale was sent to Europe to study gain coinmaking technologies which were brought back and implemented, increasing productivity and quality. Sold in 1902, the second mint was promptly demolished. The cornerstone buried in 1829 was unearthed and contained a sugarcoat jar with a petrify phellem stoppering it. Inside the jar were three coins, a few newspapers, and a scroll with data on the first mint and the creation of the second. The site has been occupied since 1914 by the 19-story Widener Building, 1339 Chestnut Street .
third base build ( 1901–1969 ) [edit ]
The one-third Philadelphia Mint was built at 1700 Spring Garden Street and opened in 1901. It was designed by William Martin Aiken, Architect for the Treasury, but it was constructed under James Knox Taylor. It was a parry from the United States Smelting company that was at Broad and Spring Garden Streets. In one year alone, the mint produced 501 million coins ( 5/7 of the U.S. currency minted ), ampere well as 90 million coins for extraneous countries. [ 2 ]
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A massive structure about a wax city parry, it was an instant landmark, characterized by a Roman temple facade. Visitors enjoyed seven theme looking glass mosaics designed by Louis C. Tiffany in a gold-backed domed ceiling. The mosaics depicted ancient Roman coinmaking methods. This mint distillery stands intact, and a lot of the interior is integral, angstrom well. It was acquired by the Community College of Philadelphia in 1971 which retains a veranda in protection to its history. [ 3 ]
Fourth and current build ( 1969–present ) [edit ]
The modern Philadelphia Mint ( 1969 ) Two blocks from the site of the first mint, the fourth and current Philadelphia Mint opened its doors in 1969. It was designed by Philadelphia architect Vincent G. Kling, who would besides help design Five Penn Center, Centre Square, and the Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts. [ 4 ] The Tiffany glass mosaics from the Third mint were re-installed in the new adeptness. [ 5 ] It was the world ‘s largest batch when it was built and held that eminence as of October 2017. The Philadelphia Mint can produce up to one million coins in 30 minutes. [ 6 ] The mint besides produces medals and awards for military, governmental, and civil services. Engraving of all dies and strikers lone occurs here. Uncirculated coins minted here have the “ P ” mint crisscross, while circulated coins from before 1980 carried no mint mark except the Jefferson nickels minted from 1942–1945 and the 1979 Susan B. Anthony dollar coins. Since 1980, all coins minted there have the “ P ” mint check except cents ( although 2017 cents do have the “ P ” mint score ). Tours can be taken where all stages of minting are explained, along with displays of by equipment. This takes place via an enclose catwalk above the mint facility itself. diverse video stations are placed along the tour route, where visitors can push buttons to watch videos about versatile stages of the mint process. Most of those videos were narrated by Baseball Hall of Fame announcer for the Philadelphia Phillies ( and voice of NFL Films ), Harry Kalas. [ 7 ]
Thefts [edit ]
On August 19, 1858, two well-groomed thieves on a enlistment of the mint used a forge key to open a expose case. They made off with $ 265.00 in gold pieces, but due to the curio of the coins, the men were promptly apprehended while trying to spend them in local shops. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] In 1893, Henry S. Cochran, a deliberation salesclerk, was found to have embezzled $ 134,000 in gold bars from the mint vault over a time period of 8–10 years. A sum of $ 107,000 was recovered from his base and from a hoard in the public discussion system inside the mint. [ 10 ] About 445,000 double eagle coins were minted in 1933, but lone one was always legally released. King Farouk of Egypt contacted Nellie Tayloe Ross, then Director of the U.S. Mint, and requested one 1933 double eagle for his extensive mint collection. Since the 1933 coins were not circulated, she took one coin to the Smithsonian Institution and received software documentation of its curio. She then issued an export document allowing the egyptian king to receive his coin. After the deaths of Farouk and the general who inherited the king ‘s collection, the coin disappeared into a european collector ‘s monomania. It resurfaced when Stephen Fenton acquired it. When he tried to auction it off, both he and the auction were arrested and the coin was seized. It was placed in the vault of the Secret Service in their office in the World Trade Center. While the birthplace and paperwork proving ownership was debated ad nauseam in the courts, the mint was transferred to Fort Knox for further guardianship. The World Trade Center was attacked and destroyed later that year. An agreement was reached between the U.S. Government and Stephen Fenton. The Fenton Farouk, as it came to be called, was sold at auction for $ 7.9 million in 2002 with a 10 % auctioneer ‘s premium and $ 20 to “ monetize ” the coin. Fenton and the government split the proceeds of the auction, with the provision that any foster 1933 double eagles would be seized and not auctioned. [ 11 ] In 2003, a Philadelphia charwoman named Joan Switt Langbord found ten 1933 duplicate eagles in a dependable deposit box that once belonged to her parents ; when she took them to be appraised, they were seized by the United States Treasury as stolen property. Investigators claimed that Langbord ‘s forefather, Israel Switt, conspired with a salesclerk inside the mint to steal the coins. He had been investigated previously for the crime, leading to the confiscation of respective gold pieces, but the legislative act of limitations had prevented him from being prosecuted. [ 12 ] Langbord sued to have the coins returned to her, but in July 2011, a federal jury ruled the steal coins were property of the U.S. government. [ 13 ] In September 2011, erstwhile mint military officer William Gray pleaded guilty in federal court to stealing error coins valued at $ 2.4 million and selling them to a distributor. [ 14 ]